Civil War to Civil Rights:
The African American Community in Natchitoches, Louisiana


African American Oral History and Ethnography
Ben D. Johnson Foundation, in conjunction with Cane River National Heritage Area and Cane River Creole National Historical Park.
Ann Brittain to J. A. Ducournau
September 30, 1968.Good Darky Statue Vertical File, Cammie Henry Research Center, Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, Louisiana.
“Black Emphasis Month Event will be Memorial Breakfast,” Natchitoches Times, 6 February 1986.
DeBlieux, Robert B.
Historic Black Churches of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Directory by Idell Snowden, Photography by Sonny Carter. Cane River National Heritage Area, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 2001.
Dollar, Susan E.
The Freedmen’s Bureau Schools of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, 1865-1868. Northwestern State University Press, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1998.
“Governor is Present for Center Opening,” Natchitoches Times, 17 June 1973.
Hutchinson, Janice and Rolonda Teal
The Elder's Utterances. Cane River National Heritage Area, Natchitoches, in press.
“Jones Urges ‘Sense of History’”, Natchitoches Times, 24 February 1983.
Malone, Ann Patten
African American Antebellum Heritage Tour, Heritage Area Workshop, 1995.
Martin, Brenden
Cane River National Heritage Area Master Interpretive Plan. Cane River National Heritage Area, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 2001.
“Natchitoches landmark give [sic] way to spray park,” Natchitoches Times, 9-10 June 2007.
“Reflections of School Life,” Natchitoches Times, 24 June 2004.
Semi-Weekly Times, 29 September 1866.
Semi-Weekly Times, 12 December 1866.
“Statue,” Time Magazine, January 3, 1927.


1. Between the 1870s and 1960s throughout the South, laws enacted on both the state and local levels were designed to alienate African Americans from their newfound freedoms. Known as Jim Crow laws, they mandated a “separate but equal” status for African Americans. Public facilities, hotels, theaters, restaurants, even building entrances were designated either “White” or “Colored,” and this separateness was strictly enforced. Although legally bound to provide equal treatment and opportunities for African Americans, these legal requirements were rarely met.

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